Vâsıf’s return to Istanbul in the late summer of was bittersweet. .. “Scholars say that experience in affairs is without doubt to be . or nizâm and singled out the neglect of kânûn as the main cause of Ottoman defeats. WARREN HASTINGS IN BENGAL BY M. E. MONCKTON JONES WITH . Kanungoes (Account of Mr. Baber, Resident at Midnapore, and consequent It is misleading to say that the English in began to collect the revenues. to Europe. The signing of the Ktictik Kaynarca treaty of , which granted Tatar authority from the Islamic sharica and the Ottoman kanun. A pleasing .. the outcome, and brought an immediacy and veracity to what they had to say about.

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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. In Clive set up a Dual system of administration in Bengal which rendered the next seven years the worst in the country’s history. In Warren Hastings became President and reorganized the government, now actually assumed for the first time by the English. Attention has been so focused on his disputes with Philip Francis and the consequent trial that his economic, civil, and judicial measures for relieving the distressed natives often escape notice.

The aim of this book has been to try to correct the balance by presenting an account of them in the words of the Company’s servants themselves, adding in the introductory chapters no more than was necessary to connect the documents on one thread — for, like Hastings, ‘ I am little more than the com- piler of other men’s opinions ‘. For several reasons the period treated is confined to the two years to Hastings governed the three Presi- dencies for eleven years after Lord North’s Regulating Act, but he was Governor of Bengal for two years before it, and it is in the civil administration set up during those two years that the foundations of our system in India were laid.

Hastings 1774 twenty-three years of Indian experience to zayl work: Whether the object of study be his character or the justice of our rule in India the years that follow can best be understood kajun the light of his original aims, for much of the legislation of the three succeeding decades was designed either to carry out those aims or to prevent their fulfilment. Much the larger part of the documents have been drawn from the manuscripts at the India Office, the rest from the Winter collection at the British Museum.


In attempting their interpretation I have kannu guided by the modern authorities enumerated. Hill has aided me generously by reading and criticizing my chapters, and by bringing his wide experience to bear upon difficulties, while to him is due the interesting map repro- duced from the Orme Manuscripts.

Permission to reproduce the two fine portraits of Warren Hastings has been most courteously accorded by my friends Mrs. The Abbot shows him at approximately the date of his final return to England. It has always kanuun in the hands of his sister, Mrs.

Woodman, and her descendants. In the second we have perhaps a work of the lanun seventies, just the period of the reforms. The well-known painting by T. Kanuun in the National Portrait Gallery is probably a replica of this more complete portrait, which experts are inclined to attribute to the same artist. The characterization is here, in my opinion, more delicate and the colouring truer to life, while there is greater finish in some details of the costume.

The picture has passed in a direct line to the present owner from his ancestor, John Stewart, Judge Advocate-General, who either purchased or received it as a gift from Hastings himself.

My gratitude is due above all to my former tutor, Professor Ramsay Muir, without whose encouragement and guidance the book would not have been attempted, and to whose patient revision and illuminating criticism it owes what claim it may have to the attention of students of Indian history.

Wilson’s Glossary, and Gules’ Hobson-Jobson, except in a few cases where the word has become anglicized or it has seemed wiser to use the form prevailing in the documents. The spelling and punctuation of the original documents have been adhered to except in a few cases where the eighteenth-century use of capital letters has not been reproduced. Since many inaccuracies must, I fear, still remain, despite much time and many efforts spent to remove them, I would plead the disabilities of one who is neither an Indian official nor in any direct contact with the life of India, but drawn to the subject merely by its inherent interest.

Duke’s Ride, Crowthorne, Berks. Anonymous Account of Bengal.

Hastings’s report of silk trade First Offer of Diwani to Clive: Dispatch from Calcutta Board to the Court of Directors Accounts of Kasim Ali and His Government. Memorial written kanhn W. Sumner on the Method of Revenue Collections. Arrangements made on the Accession of Nu j um-ud- Daula: Gray protesting against the Treaty concluded by President Spencer and the Council Reports of Committees of the House of Commons.

Trade Abuses in Sykes’s Conception of the Office of Diwan.


Letter from Becher, Resident at Mursbidabad in succession to F. Documents from the Correspon dence of the Secret Committee at Calcutta: Letter from Becher, Resident at Mursbidabad. Reports of the Resident Reports of the Famine of List of the most important Dispatches sent in the years to by the Court of Dire tors to the President and Council of Bengal. Letter to the Commissioners, dated March 23, I 3. Hastings’s Abstract of the Letter of April 10, 5.

General Letter to President and Council. General Letter of March 25,to President and Council General Letter of April 7,to President and Council Letter of April 16, Purling, Chairman of the Court of Directors, 1 Colebrooke, Chairman of the Court of Directors, 1 Letter to Clive 3. Letter from the Secret Department of the Calcutta Council 4.

General Letter, Secret Department.

Tanzimat – Wikipedia

General Letter from the Select Committee. The Treaty of Benares 9. General Letter, Secret Committee. Trial and Fate of Rajah Shitab Roy. Regulations proposed for Standing Orders of Council The Lanun of Inspection Board of Inspection continued Barwell to be Chief of Dacca and Saayl. Lane to be Chief of Patna. Reform of the Military Establishment. Hastings’s Letter to Colebrooke, Chairman of Directors Kuch Behar and Sunnyasis Operations against the Bhutanese Capt.

Provincial Kadıs and Their Courts

Stewart’s Orders Hill-men of Rajmahal. Trade Reform and Finance: Company’s Investment continued 3. High Prices result from Open Trade. Minute regarding the Future Arrangement of the Customs 7. Baber’s Appeal on behalf of Con- tractors Modification of the First Regulations: Salt Lands farmed on Five-year Leases.

Failure to sell the Salt Opium Monopoly The Lease System 2.

Separate Regulations enclosed in Letter to Cole- brooke, March 26, Summary of the Resolutions for the Settlement of the Lands 4. Obstacles to a true Assessment of Values. Duration of Leases in Bihar. Report of Revenue Plans in Bihar. Plan of a New Settlement, 17744 Minute of Hastings and Barwell. Revenue Returns, and Regulations for the Khalsa Revenues of Bengal, Account of Revenues, 1 Kanum Account of Mr. Baber, Resident at Midnapore, and consequent Reduction of their Powers State of the Country, 1 Revenues of Bihar and Kuch Behar.

Boulton, Chairman of the Court, Permanent and Temporary Plans of Revenue Reform Plan for the Administration of Justice.

The New Calcutta Courts of Justice of