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I also tried to cover wider chronological space in order to show that negative and biased picture of ditanka Ottoman reign appears as structural element in textbooks, a kind of continuity during very changeable history of education in Serbia in XX century. I will not enter the discussion about ideological changes clearly evident, but some of them are to be mentioned.

In July, with new Serbian President there was inaugurated the old-new Serbian hymn. Approaching the end of essay, I would like to pay attention to efforts aiming to curtail these stereotypes, efforts which give their first results in revision of textbooks, changed views towards the national past, more critical and more historical approach to the problem of Ottoman reign V.

I was in a position to use these materials by kindness of D. The Turksaccording to common opinion, were not interested in economic development of these areas, and if they had done something, they had done it wrongly. Lesson which is supposed to inform the students about population of Yugoslavia gives historical account about migrations toward the Balkans.

Profil Klett | Spajamo ideje. Stvaramo znanje.

Mantran, Beogradpp. Ottoman Empire is presented as unstable state, descending into corruption, with permanent aggravation of a position of the Christians.

Where are or were the borders of zz national area, if such area exists at all? In a few words, it is completely unsure how many years the Ottomans ruled over the Serbs? See references in the end of the text.

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Rudolf Pečjak

Not even a word was spoken about some political or cultural successes of Ottoman Empire. Sparavalo, Istorijska citanka za 7.

Such ignorance is not regarded as a problem, because there are poetic descriptions of event, just enough to replace the lack of knowledge. And, of course, our youths were favorite because of their moral and physical superiority.

My intention is to explain the mythical characteristics of the problem such defined, to show how it functions as a myth. I would mention just a few interesting details. Much more relevant aspect than its chronological and territorial problem is its substance.

Why Is This a Myth? Istorija Osmanskog Carstvaed. Feudal obligations of the raya were, in the beginning, less unbearable than these given to domestic gentlemen in the period before Ottoman conquest. For period after the World War the Second I consulted two [8] textbooks used in the period betweenfor elementary school, and three textbooks used from to nowadays [9].

Textbooks for the first four grades of elementary education give even more vivid picture of cruel and uncivilized otherness. Sometimes the myth gets also the form of joke: All these questions are involved with or without serious reason in this problem, involved by historians, politicians, scientists, common people making almost inevitable the fact that it is impossible to make chronological frame within could be precisely defined duration of Ottoman period of Serbian history.

Čitanka za 4. razred gimnazije – Google Books

First edition M. Are or were the Macedonians Serbs? If accepted, these interpretations introduce one logical question: Excerpts from the sources refers mostly to sufferings and unbearable terror over the Christians.

When describing historical reasons for migrations toward the North, author puts the emphases over the gimbazije done by the Turksbecause of Gimbazije insurrections and participation in the wars against the Ottomans organized by Christian forces. It is particularly emphasized in citqnka textbook for the first grade of gymnasium. Without any serious knowledge about real conditions during the Ottoman rule, historiography fashioned simplified model, which was and still is very influential.

Lukic, Poznavanje drustva, udzbenik za V razred osnovne sk ole, Beograd According to authoritative theories [2] of the myth as a phenomenon of great importance for human society, the most important characteristic and social function of the myth is explication of the facts, whether natural or cultural.


Without intention to be cynic or to diminish razree importance, it should be honest and confess that, except the general remarks about severity of the Turks, nothing about devshirme is understandable for the students. But from historical point of view it is a serious problem, reflecting the whole range of unsolved national crises, crises of identity, territorial and ethnical feuds.

Similar situation repeated when Austria governed northern Serbia Taken as a whole, the picture of the Turks turns out as dominantly negative, mostly because of sharp qualifications. In razres view of this example, it is interesting to mention another general remark given by the author of the textbook: Thus, the myth is born: According to one it was every year, another believes that it was in every fifth, and maybe in every seventh year.

Given in the simplest interpretation, the myth could be displayed as such: Grubac, Istorija za 7. Based on more or less acceptable arguments in its first half, the real myth begins in tragic fatal predestination which explains all misfortunes of modern Serbian state, all political, economic and cultural failures.

Literatura – knjige

But, through the rational use of natural and social potentials, our economy has good conditions for development. It remains, as dominant idea, that historiography is national discipline, aiming rrazred producing patriotic emotions. From my point of view even if originally self-made this myth supported by irresponsible relation towards the truth is useful as an element of national cohesion.

Pregled istorije jugoslovenskih narodaI-II, Beograd The effects of such simplified interpretations are at least expectable and in their basis logical: