FTTX Concepts and Applications [Gerd Keiser] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book presents fundamental passive optical network. This book presents fundamental passive optical network (PON)concepts, providing you with the tools needed to understand,design, and build. FTTX concepts and applications / by Gerd Keiser. p. cm. — (Wiley series in telecommunications and signal processing) “A Wiley-Interscience publication.
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Log In Sign Up. If this is a republication request please include details of the new work in which the Wiley content will appear. In addition, to protect the OLT detector from possible overload conditions, three levels of optical power control may be used in the ONT transmitter. In Chapter 5 we describe some of the optical connection and splicing tech- niques used in PONs. The UPS can meet the requirement of eight hours of operation through a standard internal battery that has a 7 ampere-hour capacity.
Once all splices are completed between the two cable sections, a protective sealing cover is placed around the splice holder to shield the splices from the environment. Light rays with steep incident angles have longer path lengths than lower-angle rays. Appendix D Communication Signals.
Since each subscriber link needs transmitters and receivers at each end, the system needs a total of 32 optical transceivers. Possible arrangement of optical thin-film filters at an OLT for triple-play applications. The pur- pose of fragmentation is to send packets from a user efficiently regardless of their size and to recover the original packet format reliably from the physical layer transmission windows on the GPON. Skip to main content. Two common and proven technologies were combined in the LC connector.
Rearranging this equation gives the relationship between wavelength and frequency. In some cases, lightpaths may be converted from one wavelength to another wavelength along their route.
The ATM protocol has a set of quality-of-service QoS attributes that are associ- ated with the performance of a network connection. This requires an auto- matic switching protocol between the endpoints to enable use of the protection link. Although not every homeowner or business may necessarily subscribe to such a network, the chances are that most will.
Wiley-IEEE Press: FTTX Concepts and Applications – Gerd Keiser
The expansion of DWDM channels beyond the C-band into the S- and L-bands has allowed the possibility of sending wavelengths spaced 25 GHz apart in the com- bined C- and L-band with Gbps transmission rates per channel. A key advantage of the GEM scheme is that it provides an efficient means to encapsulate and fragment user information packets.
Depending on the particular PON standard being used, the downstream and upstream transmission equipment operate at Mbps, Mbps, 1. To relieve the OLT detector from experiencing possible overload conditions, G This simply means that there are more electrons in an excited state than in the ground state.
FTTX Concepts and Applications
Stimulated emission occurs when some external stimulant such as an incident photon causes an electron located in an excited state to drop to the ground state.
Assigns varying amounts kfiser upstream transmission bandwidth to each ONT see Section 8.
To achieve lasing, the photon density in this region needs to be built up so that the stimulated emission rate becomes higher than the rate at which photons are absorbed by the semiconductor material.
Each discipline makes up a portion or band of the electromagnetic spectrum. More details on stan- dards for PON equipment are provided in subsequent chapters. Photo courtesy of LuminentOIC; www. Thus, the nm window is available for other services, such as multichannel video transmission from the OLT to the users.
For example, an ONT will reject frames intended for other ONTs and also dis- cards broadcast frames that it has generated. Devices nominally operating at 5 V and having 5.
For opera- tion in the region to nm the ternary material indium gallium arsenide InGaAs is used most commonly for both pin and avalanche photodiodes.
In some cases the transmission rates are the same in either direction a symmetric network. Typically, the amount of redundant information is small, so the FEC scheme does not use up much additional bandwidth and thus remains efficient. Although this broad spectral output does not make an FP laser feasible for high-speed long-haul transmissions, this device is pop- ular for use at short and intermediate distances up to 20 km. Depending on the packaging format, DFB outputs can range up to several milliwatts: This can include factors such as response time, availability of service, downtime, security characteristics, and repair response time.
As shown in Figure 7. In the process of converting the received optical signal power into an elec- trical signal, various noises and distortions will unavoidably be introduced, due to imperfect component responses.
The factor that must be kept in mind with this bidirectional scheme, however, is that the wavelength coupling elements at either end of the link will reduce the avail- able optical power budget, since they have excess and insertion losses.
However, there is a speed limit beyond which even the laser does not respond fast enough to the changes in an electrical signal. The logical sequenceof topics begins with the underlying principles and components ofoptical fiber communication technologies used in access What is the avalanche multiplication factor? MANs are owned and operated by many organizations. Passive WDM couplers perform the wavelength combining and separation functions, as described in Section 6.
This energy-supplying technique, called pumping, can be done by optical or electrical means.
This structure is called a Fabry— Perot cavity or an etalon. The basis of this burst-mode transmitter function is the topic of Section 4.