Isocost-isoquant analysis: theory of production: The production function: a figure known as an isoquant diagram (Figure 1). In the graph, goldsmith-hours per. Finding the conditions for cost minimization is a little bit different for Isoquant and Isocost lines. Instead of finding the optimal quantity level for a. Isoquants: An isoquant (equal quantity) is a curve that shows the combinations of certain inputs such as Labor (L) and Capital (K) that will produce a certain.

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It should be remembered that the isoquants in the theory iskquant production are, in fact, the counterpart of the indifference curves in the theory of consumption.

The capacity of the producer is shown by his monetary resources, i. No two factors are perfect substitutes.

Iso quant is sloping downwardso when inputs are used in fixed proportion. OM in the diagram represents 50 workers and ON represent 5 machines.

An isocost line is a locus of points showing the alternative combinations of factors that can be purchased with a fixed amount of money. The isocost line NM sets the upper boundary anwlysis the purchase of the inputs when outlay and input prices are given.

The slope of the isoquant is the marginal rate of technical substitution MRTS and the slope of the isocost line indicates the factor price ratio. The isocost line will shift isoquaht the prices of factors change, the outlay remaining the same. Iso cost line shows various combinations of labour and capital that the firm can buy for a given factor prices. To find the least cost combination of inputs to produce a given output, we need to construct such equal cost lines or isocost lines.

To find the least-cost combination of factors for fixed level of output we combine Fig. An isoquant shows the various combination of two inputs that can be used to produce a specific level of output. Where the isoquant touches but does not cross the lowest isocost line is the least cost position.


Suppose, the producer wants to produce six units of output.

The long-run production function of a firm involving the usage of two factors, say, capital and labour is represented by equal-product curve or isoquant.

This equals the ratio of isocot productivity of two inputs.

economic growth analysis: Isoquant and Isocost and The Very Long Run

Privacy policy About WikiEducator Disclaimers. The slope of iso cost line indicates the ratio of the factor prices. If, in the short run, its total output remains fixed due to capacity constraint and if it is a price-taker i.

The slope depends on the prices of factors of production and the amount of money which the firm spends on the factors. If labour were relatively more expensive, the isocost lines would be steeper in Fig.

Profit Maximization Through the Technique of Isoquant and Isocost Line

However, at these points the firm remains at a lower isoquant IQ 1which yields a lesser level of output than that on IQ 2. These alternatives are shown also in Fig. Views Read View source View history. We may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.

Towards this end, the equal product map has been super imposed on the isocost line NM. All the units of both the factors are homogeneous The prices of the factor units are given The total money outlay is also given There is perfect competition in the factor-market. Assumptions The principle of least-cost combination rests on the following assumptions: In this equationPL is the price of labour and Pk is the price of capital.

This is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. This is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. And isoquant must be convex to the origin.


Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account. Views Read Edit View history. This is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons. A line joining tangency points of isoquants and isocosts with input prices held constant is called the expansion path. Likewise, the segments of isoquants falling below the isocost line indicate under-utilization of his outlay fully.

So the condition that the MRTS be equal to the input cost ratio is equivalent to the condition that the marginal product per dollar is equal for the two inputs. Rationality on the part of the producer requires full utilization of resources for optimization of output. It is also known as the desired rate of factor substitution, i.

Books, Literature, and Writing. This indicates that one factor can be used a little more and other factor a little less, without changing the level of output.

If we connect the two points N and M, we get the isocost line.

We may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites. Therefore, the only way to maximise profit is to minimise cost. The isocost line is combined with the isoquant map to determine the optimal production point at any given level of output. Thus, E is the point of equilibrium from where there is no tendency on the part of the producer to move away.

Capital and labor are the two factors involved in production. It looks for that factor combination that is on the lowest of the isocost lines.

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