skills, attitudes, values and personal characteristics (Juceviien, Lepait, ). palyginti su pradedaniaisiais, parod didesn savo elgsenos kaitum iekodami vairesni Nurodomos organizacijos ar fondai, nansav tyrimus (jei tokie buvo). Transcript. 1 M o ks li ni a i t y ri m a i 2 0 13 Mokslini publikacij sraas. 2 Mo ks li ni a i t y ri m a i Mokslini publikacij sraas. 3 ISSN (print) ISSN.
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Post on Feb 85 views. Socialiniai mokslai zinis ugdymas, treniravimo sistemos, sporto pedagogika, sporto psichologija, sporto sociologija, sporto mokslo metodologija, sporto vadyba, rekreacija ir turizmas. Biomedicinos mokslai sporto ziologija, judesi valdymas ir mokymasis, sporto biochemija, sporto medicina, kineziterapija ir ergoterapija, zinis aktyvumas ir sveikata, sporto biomechanika, taikomoji zin veikla. Humanitariniai mokslai sporto istorija, sporto losoja, sporto teis, sporto terminologija.
The quarterly journal will publish original scientic papers in the following trends branches of science: Research articles in Social and Biomedical Sciences are given in this issue. Sportas leidiamas nuo m. Herman Van Coppenolle Dr. Hardman Loughborough universitetas, Didioji Britanija Prof.
Aleksandras KriinasRasa Jankauskien, Brigita Mieien Lietuvos sveikatos moksl universitetas, Medicinos akademija Lietuvos kno kultros akademija Zagrebo universitetas, Kroatija Lietuvos kno kultros akademija Lietuvos kno kultros akademija Doc. Dalia Mickeviien atsakingoji sekretor Prof. Albertas Skurvydas vyriausiasis redaktorius Prof. Dalia Mickeviien Executive Secretary Prof. Albertas Skurvydas Editor-in-Chief Prof. While for some authors team sport players should have a high VO2max, we hypothesize that there exist a non-linear relationship between VO2max and basketball performance.
Research aims were to study the correlation between basketball performance and VO2max in young elite basketball players and the effects of VO2max training on performance. In the rst study, 67 high-level young basketball players performed a shuttle-run test SRT to measure their VO2max.
Competition performance assessed through statistics ratings of 5 matches was determined for all players. The correlation between VO2max and performance was calculated. In the second study, the VO2max and the competition performance of 34 high-level young male players was assessed as in the rst study.
The sample was divided into control and experimental groups, which trained their VO2max. At the end of the training period all participants repeated the SRT.
The results of 4 games played before the rst test and 4 games played after the second test against the same opponents were compared in both groups. In the rst study we found a correlation of VO2max with steals in both groups. In the second study, the experimental group increased their VO2max and steals per game, but they decreased free throw per game and free throw percentage.
No correlation was found between VO2max and competitive performance in this study, and increased VO2max had no effect on most of the studied variables. The data therefore suggest a non-linear relationship between VO2max and basketball performance. Traditionally, performance has been considered to be the sum of several aspects: In recent years many tests have been developedIto assess each of these components separately, the main objective being to monitor and train these capacities on an individual basis.
In order to quantify the performance of players in competitive settings the game is broken down into isolated actions that are later quantied. Game statistics, which are especially popular in baseball and basketball, determine the players overall4Carlos Claramunt, Ivar Guzman, Joan Sol, Natlia Balagu, Robert Hristovskiperformance using several formulas Berri, However, there are at least two key questions that require further investigation: Is there a linear relation between performance components and the competitive performance itself, i.
One of the main indicators of the level of aerobic capacity development is VO 2 max. Its importance in competitive performance is wellknown and rests on the relationship between aerobic capacity and both repeated sprint ability RSA and phosphocreatine levels Bishop et al.
In addition, a decrease in intracellular pH due to low aerobic capacity may also contribute to the decline in power output during RSA via inhibition of glycolysis Westerblad et al. Thus, the main aim of a typical physical training programme in team sports is to increase aerobic capacity together with strength and speed, which would be expected to improve the player s overall performance.
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The relationship between increased VO2max and the total distance ran and the distance covered at high-running speed has already been studied in soccer Impellizzeri et al. In competitive basketball, especially in young players, an increase in VO2max levels seems crucial because of the fast movements performed throughout the game and the fact that aerobic metabolism is the predominant energy source Abdelkrim et al.
Consequently, we hypothesise that an increase in VO2max will have an effect on match performance. Although it is commonly assumed that there is a linear relationship between physical condition components and performance, some recent experiments have shown non-linear relationships organizacijoz these components: It is therefore unclear whether an increase in VO2max will produce a linear improvement in the performance of a basketball jufeviien, as there may organizacijow interactions with other components.
This is a common effect in complex adaptive systems the behaviour of which being the result elgsenaa an immense number of coordinated spatio-temporal processes, is highly non-linear Hristovski et al. In other words, their macroscopic behaviour e. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: A To study the correlation between elgsenw basketball performance assessed on the basis of basketball statistics and aerobic capacity in young high-level basketball players.
B To study the effects of aerobic capacity training on competitive performance in the same population. Sixty-seven male elite basketball players mean age They were all organizacinos about the study characteristics and signed a written consent form.
The sample was divided into two groups: Group A comprised 33 players aged 13 years, while Group B included 34 players aged 12 years.
Krganizacijos all engaged in a total of 4. The formula used was: All participants wore a portable heart-rate monitor to test their maximum heart rate, thereby ensuring maximum effort. Before each test, height and weight was measured to ensure that any possible modication in aerobic capacity would not be due to morphological changes. Between the first and the second test the participants played ve matches, all of which were statistically analysed.
A total of 30 matches were studied and the evaluated variables were: In order to compare different teams the data were standardised to team ball possessions Gme, Lorenzo, using the following formula: Descriptive statistics of height, weight, VO 2 max HRmax and performance formulas were then calculated. To ensure a normal sample distribution the Shapiro-Wilks test was applied. The signicance of any differences between the rst and the second VO2max organizacijso was assessed by means of the Students t test.
Finally, we organizscijos the r value for the correlation between match performance and aerobic capacity. Statistical signicance was set at p 0. Prganizacijos, a positive trend juceviieb the variable group was observed in the transfer situation.
For the strike in volleyball, the differential learning group had a signicant advantage with respect to velocity in a variable test situation p 0. In both experiments, the set variability leads to benets in variable transfer situations. However, as a practical consequence, especially for constant situations, certain moderator variables such as training age or background in other sports or activities must be kept in mind to adjust the amount of external or intervention-induced variability.
In human movement organizaciios and motor learning, various theoretical approaches and concepts that incorporate different forms of variable practice e. In recent years, the integration of other physiological and non-physiological approaches all juceviiej on variability such as synergetics or dynamic system approaches, stochastic resonance, neurobiology, as well as articial neural network simulations also emphasized the important role of variability in motor development and learning e.
In addition to the abovementioned approaches, one approach that integrates the ideas of Russian neurophysiologist and movement pioneer Nikolai Bernstein is the differential learning approach by W.
In differential learning, the athlete should explore and discover the individual optimum through self-organizing processes following enhanced uctuations. These uctuations, due to optimal perturbations within the organism, provoked by a noisy training environment, lead to movements seen as deviations from the task to-be-learned. When the athlete has to adapt to force, the choice and order of exercises should be arranged in a way that no adaptation process would resemble an other one. Juceviuen showed similar, if not better performances than training methods typical for their sports, as well as constant practice or methodological rows e.
Schnherr, Schllhorn, ; Birklbauer et al. To further test the idea jucevviien differential learning, we conducted two studies in complex sports on two different levels of play. In a study on the basketball free throw, we elgdena differential learning to standard training at different skill levels year- to year-olds. Our second experiment examined the volleyball strike. Participants were elite volleyball players and, as it is assumed that the strike technique is already matured juveviien this level of play, movement variability within the movement task was further provided by using a special training device with elastic cords.
Players elgsdna assigned either to one of the two intervention groups or a control group CG in a quasi-random manner based on their pre-test performance successful and missed shot ratio. Each group consisted of 17 players whereby the number of players with respect to the skill level was counterbalanced across all groups. Intervention group 1 IG1BB trained according to the differential learning approach whereas intervention group 2 IG2-BB practiced according to standard, constant free throw training.
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Participants completed 15 sessions and performed 50 free organizafijos each session jucevkien augmented feedback over a period of 7.
Pre- post- and retention tests were done to measure free throw performance. In addition to counting the successful and missed free throws for a total of 20 test shots, all shots were rewarded according to a special point system following D. The calculated sum was another parameter to estimate performance. Alike, the hit shots were counted and were rewarded according to the point system.
For the differential group, each session focused on a different aspect of the throw movement e.
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Variations included movement errors and deviations, respectively, of the goal movement. Likewise, invariants common to the variability-of-practice-hypothesis were not held constant but were varied, too. The variations not only concerned movement executions, but also the target.
The constant practice group shot 50 free throws without any instructions. Organizzacijos sample size was 16; however, due to injury two players could not take part in the post test. Players were assigned to one of the two intervention groups i. In contrast to the first experiment, the intervention-induced variability was not only achieved by diverse executions but also by perturbations created through elastic cords Figure 1a. Examples for such cord positions would be 1 from the left anterior superior iliac spine to the upper arm; 2 from left anterior superior iliac spine to the wrist and elbow; and 3 from the ilio-sacral joint to the upper arm and the left ball.
Variability was further enhanced by the altering cord position and length.
Seventeen of the 25 strikes were practiced with cords; the remaining 8 strikes were practiced without cords. The second intervention and quasi-control group IG2-VB practiced their orgxnizacijos according to constant practice.